- Director:Ken Annakin,Andrew Marton
- Writer:Cornelius Ryan,Cornelius Ryan
- Cast:John Wayne,Robert Ryan,Richard Burton
- Time:2h 58min
|Cast overview, first billed only:|
|Eddie Albert||-||Col. Thompson|
|Paul Anka||-||U.S. Army Ranger|
|Jean-Louis Barrault||-||Father Louis Roulland|
|Richard Beymer||-||Pvt. Dutch Schultz|
|Hans Christian Blech||-||Maj. Werner Pluskat|
|Bourvil||-||Mayor of Colleville|
|Richard Burton||-||Flying Officer David Campbell|
|Wolfgang Büttner||-||Maj. Gen. Dr. Hans Speidel|
|Red Buttons||-||Pvt. John Steele|
|Sean Connery||-||Pvt. Flanagan|
|Ray Danton||-||Capt. Frank|
|Irina Demick||-||Janine Boitard (as Irina Demich)|
|Fred Dur||-||U.S. Army Ranger Major|
Lt. Colonel Benjamin Vandervoort was 27 years old on D-Day. He was very disappointed to find that he was being played in the film by John Wayne, given that he was ten years younger than the 54-year-old Wayne when the movie was made.
Dwight D. Eisenhower walked out on the film after only a few minutes, frustrated by the inaccuracies.
While clearing a section of the Normandy beach near Ponte du Hoc, the film's crew unearthed a tank that had been buried in the sand since the original invasion. Mechanics cleaned it off, fixed it up and it was used in the film as part of the British tank regiment.
Henry Grace was not an actor when being cast as Dwight D. Eisenhower, but his remarkable resemblance to Eisenhower got him the role.
An estimated 23,000 troops were supplied by the U.S., Britain, and France for the filming. (Germans only appeared as officers in speaking roles.) The French contributed 1,000 commandos despite their involvement in the Algerian War at the time.
In Italy for the filming of Cleopatra (1963), Roddy McDowall became so frustrated with the numerous delays during its production, he begged Darryl F. Zanuck for a part in this picture just so he could do some work. He ended up with a small role as an American soldier. Richard Burton, who was also filming "Cleopatra", took the opportunity caused by the long delays to take a cameo role of an RAF pilot.
During the filming of the landings at Omaha Beach, the American soldiers appearing as extras didn't want to jump off the landing craft into the water because they thought it would be too cold. Robert Mitchum, who played Gen. Norm Cota, was so disgusted with them that he jumped in first, at which point the soldiers had no choice but to follow his example.
As a 22-year-old private, Joseph Lowe landed on Omaha Beach on D-Day with the Second Ranger Battalion and scaled the cliffs at Point-Du-Hoc. He scaled those 100-foot cliffs all over again, for the cameras, some 17 years later.
One of producer Darryl F. Zanuck's big worries was that, as filming of the actual invasion drew near, he couldn't find any working German Messerschmitts, which strafed the beach, or British Spitfires, which chased them away. He finally found two Messerschmitt Me-108 trainers that were being used by the Spanish Air Force, and two Spitfires that were still on active duty with the Belgian Air Force, and rented all four of them for the invasion scenes.
One of the very first World War II films made by an American studio in which the members of each country spoke nearly all their dialogue in the language of that country: the Germans spoke German, the French spoke French, and the Americans and the British spoke English. There were subtitles on the bottom of the screen to translate the various languages. There were two versions of this movie, one where all the actors spoke English and the other (the better known one) where the French and German actors spoke their respective languages.
In his memoirs Christopher Lee recalls being rejected for a role in the movie because he didn't look like a military man (Lee volunteered to fight in the Winter War of 1939 before serving in the RAF, RAF Intelligence, the Special Operations Executive (SOE)- precursor to MI6, and the Long Range Desert Group (LRDG) - precursor to the SAS during World War II).
Just before shooting began in Corsica, Darryl F. Zanuck was approached by a man stating he represented the beach owners. He insisted on a 15,000 dollar payment, or else they would drive modern cars along the beach. Zanuck paid the money, but it was later discovered to be a scam as there were no private beaches in Corsica. Zanuck eventually won damages after an eight-year lawsuit.
Sean Connery asked that his scenes be filmed quickly so he could get to Jamaica in time to star in James Bond 007 jagt Dr. No (1962).
Curd Jürgens played General Blumentritt. In real life, Jürgens had been imprisoned by the Nazis.
Kenneth More, playing Captain Colin Maud, carried the shillelagh Maud had used in the actual invasion, which had been loaned to him by Maud.
The piper who played the bagpipes as Lord Lovat's commandos stormed ashore is played by the late Pipe Major Leslie de Laspee, who was at the time Pipe Major of the London Scottish Pipe Band, and personal piper to HM the Queen Mother. The actual man who did this stirring deed on D-Day is Bill Millin. He recently donated that very set of pipes to the national war memorial in Edinburgh Castle.
Former U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower was considered for the role of himself in the film, and he indicated his willingness. However, it was decided that makeup artists couldn't make him appear young enough to play his World War II self.
"Rupert" was not the first dummy paratrooper used in the war. The Luftwaffe dropped dummies along with real troops all over Holland and parts of Belgium in the opening of the Battle for France.
Contrary to what is shown in this movie many of the German soldiers posted to Normandy at the time of the landings were young boys from the Hitler Youth and old men from reserve regiments as the main regiments had been moved due to the disinformation fed to German high command by the allies. Many veterans would report that the faces of the teenage boys they had to kill haunted them into old age.
According to several German veterans, Major Werner Pluskat was not at his command bunker in Omaha Beach when the first wave of the invasion forces landed, as depicted in this film. He was in a bordello in Caen.
Richard Todd, who actually took part in the action at the bridge at Benouville (later renamed Pegasus Bridge), was offered the chance to play himself but joked, "I don't think at this stage of my acting career I could accept a part 'that' small." He played the commander of the actual bridge assault itself, Maj. John Howard, instead.
To create a more sympathetic stance to each of the different parties, Darryl F. Zanuck had Englishman Ken Annakin direct the British segments, the American parts were handled by American action specialist Andrew Marton and German Bernhard Wicki took care of the scenes with the German army officers.
The Germans were deliberately not portrayed in stereotypical style. The words "Sieg Heil", for instance, are never said, although they can be seen written on a bunker wall in Ouistreham.
20th Century Fox was taking a real gamble making this film. At ten million dollars, it was a hugely daring venture, but even more risky was Cleopatra (1963), which was being filmed concurrently. This was to set Fox back the then unprecedented sum of forty million dollars. Although "Cleopatra" did well at the box office, it was simply too expensive to recoup its costs and nearly bankrupted the studio. Fortunately, this film turned out to be one of Fox's biggest hits and helped offset the financial damage caused by the Egyptian epic.
As part of John Wayne's contract, in addition to his high fee, he insisted on getting separate billing. The usual practice in film credits for this type of situation is to start off with "Starring John Wayne and *the other actors*; however, the credits begin with "starring *the other actors*... and John Wayne". Wayne's name appears last on the credits, while still meeting the separate billing clause of his contract.
Although he changed the cap-badge to that of Major Howard's regiment, the beret that Richard Todd (who plays Howard) wears in this film, is the one that he actually wore on D-Day.
Many of the military consultants and advisers, drawn from both sides, were actual participants on D-Day itself.
With a ten million dollar budget, this was the most expensive black-and-white film ever made until Schindlers Liste (1993).
Only six percent of the paratroopers depicted actually achieved their goal, sixty percent of the men and equipment parachuted in on D-Day were lost.
John Wayne, who was nearly 55 at the time of filming, was widely felt to be too old and too heavy to play a paratrooper. The part was originally offered to 38-year-old Charlton Heston.
Adolf Hitler doesn't make an appearance in the film. In reality, he slept through the start of the D-Day landings, having taken a sleeping pill.
John Robinson, who plays Admiral Ramsay, actually took part in the D-Day landings.
No gliders of the sort used in the invasion were available, so Darryl F. Zanuck commissioned new duplicates from the same company that built the originals.
When cost overruns on Cleopatra (1963) threatened to force 20th Century Fox to shut down production of this film, Darryl F. Zanuck flew to New York to save his project. After an impassioned speech to Fox's board, he regained control of the company he founded, ultimately finishing this picture and getting the production of "Cleopatra" under control.
As would be done later in Patton - Rebell in Uniform (1970), the Twentieth Century Fox logo is never shown.
The theme song to the movie, by Paul Anka, was used as the regimental march of the Canadian Airborne Regiment (1968-95)
In addition to Sean Connery, who made his debut as James Bond the same year this film was shot, two other actors in the film were Gert Fröbe and Curd Jürgens, two future Bond villains.
Richard Burton said he felt that both he and Donald Houston were too old to play RAF pilots. During his national service in the RAF he never saw a pilot older than 30.
When the film was released there were complaints over the casting, as many of the actors were too old for their characters.
To give an idea of the scale of this film, producer Darryl F. Zanuck effectively commanded more "troops" than any of the generals during the actual campaign.
Eddie Albert, who played Colonel Thompson, was a World War II veteran, but he served in the Pacific, not in Europe.
During shooting in Ste. Mère-Eglise, traffic was stopped, stores were closed and the power was shut down in order not to endanger the paratroopers who were unused to night drops in populated areas. Still, the lights and staged fire proved too difficult to work around, and only one or two jumpers managed to land in the square - with several suffering minor injuries. One of the initial jumpers broke both legs in landing. Ultimately, plans to use authentic jumps were abandoned, opting instead for rigged jumps from high cranes.
It only took four days to shoot John Wayne's cameo, although it was one of the more lengthy of all the cameos in the film.
Darryl F. Zanuck and Cornelius Ryan collaborated on the screenplay, even though they hated each other almost from the first time they met. It was up to producer Elmo Williams to mediate between the two and keep the peace.
The fleet scenes were filmed using 22 ships of the U.S. Sixth Fleet during maneuvers off Corsica between June 21-30, 1961. The cameras had to avoid shooting the area where the fleet's aircraft carrier was positioned, as there were no carriers in the invasion.
Due to the massive cost overruns on the film Cleopatra (1963) (which was filming concurrently), Darryl F. Zanuck had to agree to a fixed filming budget. After he had spent the budgeted amount, he started using his own money to pay for the production.
The production had 36 real landing craft and two real German planes at its disposal.
The part of the British priest was first offered to Dirk Bogarde, who turned it down.
The French Resistance woman shown at the start of the film is played by Irina Demick, who was Darryl F. Zanuck's girlfriend at the time.
Throughout the film a drum can occasionally be heard in the background. It hits three high notes and fourth that is lower as in "bim, bim, bim, bum". These represent the three dots and a dash of the Morse code "V", as in "V for Victory".
The role of Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Vandervoort was sought by Charlton Heston, but John Wayne decided to take the part at the last minute, and Heston was out.
Richard Todd (playing Major John Howard, Officer Commanding D Company of The 2nd Battalion The Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, Air Landing Brigade, 6th Airborne Division) was himself in Normandy on D-Day, and participated as Capt. Todd of the 7th Parachute Battalion, 5th Parachute Brigade, British 6th Airborne Division. His battalion actually went into action as reinforcements, via a parachute jump (after the gliders had landed and completed the initial coup de main assault). Captain Richard 'Sweeney' Todd was moved from the plane he was originally scheduled to jump from, to another. The original plane was shot down, killing everyone on board.
Producer Darryl F. Zanuck paid the original author Cornelius Ryan 175,000 dollars for the screen rights to his book.
Several sources credit Christopher Lee as being in this project, but Lee denied working on the film.
There was some controversy over the casting. At 54, John Wayne was 27 years older than Colonel Benjamin Vandervoort had been at the time. At 52, Robert Ryan was 15 years older than General James M. Gavin had been.
Red Buttons was considered too old to play a paratrooper.
Donald Houston, who has one scene as an RAF pilot, actually was in the RAF during World War II.
The real Theodore Roosevelt Jr. died of a heart attack in France just a few weeks after the Normandy invasion.
The Spitfire planes needed to be fitted with new Rolls-Royce engines before being usable.
The character who calls the homing pigeons on Juno beach "Traitors" when they appear to fly east towards Germany is Canadian journalist Charles Lynch, who landed with the Canadians and covered the landings for Reuters.
One of the uncredited writers on the film was James Jones, author of "From Here to Eternity".
When leading the assault at Pegasus Bridge, Richard Todd (Maj. Howard) cries, "Up the Ox and Bucks." He and his men belonged to the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry. This regiment was formed in 1881 by the merger of the 43rd and 52nd Regiments of Foot, first raised in 1741 and 1755 respectively.
As there was a naturist resort two miles inland from the Corsican beach, it was necessary to post signs warning the naturists not to approach the water during filming.
Field Marshal Erwin Rommel and his son Manfred Rommel are played by real life father and son Werner Hinz and Michael Hinz respectively.
Four Spitfires were used in the strafing sequence. They were all ex-Belgian target tugs and all were MK9s. The serial numbers were MH415, MK297, MK923 and MH434 and all are, as of this writing, still extant. The Spitfires were assembled and co-ordinated by former Free French Spitfire pilot Pierre Laureys, who flew with 340 Squadron, a Free French unit in the RAF. The four Spitfires were, of course, repainted in 340 Squadron markings. Spitfire MK923 was owned by Oscar-winning actor Cliff Robertson from 1963-98.
Red Buttons was cast in the film after he ran into Darryl F. Zanuck in a Paris café.
John Wayne (a very conservative Republican) and Robert Ryan (a very liberal Democrat) had managed to put their political differences aside when they made Stählerne Schwingen (1951), but they did not get along at all while making this film.
Alec Guinness was sought for a cameo.
Despite the Cornelius Ryan connection, the only stars to appear in both this film and Die Brücke von Arnheim (1977) are Sean Connery and Wolfgang Preiss.
Adolf Hitler had invaded France in May 1940 to force an end to World War II and the Anglo-French economic blockade. France and the British Commonwealth and Empire had declared war on Germany in September 1939 following the invasion of western Poland, although they did not respond to the Soviet Union's invasion of eastern Poland on 17 September.
Germany was fighting alone in Europe after Italy had switched sides in September 1943.
The Messerschmitts used to portray Luftwaffe fighters were not Bf-109s, but were actually Bf-108 Taifuns, a four-seat cabin monoplane design with a wider fuselage.
Alongside the three credited directors, Gerd Oswald directed the parachute drop scene and Darryl F. Zanuck himself did some pick-ups.
Darryl F. Zanuck was quoted in an interview as saying that he didn't think much of actors forming their own production companies, citing Alamo (1960), produced by John Wayne, as a failure of such ventures. Wayne found out about this interview before being approached by Zanuck, and refused to appear in the film unless he was paid 250,000 dollars for his role (when the other famous actors were being paid 25,000 dollars). Wayne got his requested salary.
Many of the beach scenes were filmed in Corsica.
A colorized version of this film, in pan/scan 4:3 ratio, was released on VHS in 1994, the 50th anniversary of the invasion, but met with almost total resistance by serious film enthusiasts who preferred to see it in B&W and in its correct, original wide screen ratio.
The scene of the French commando assault in Ouistreham was filmed in the nearby town of Port-en-Bessin. A building seen in the background of the long tracking shot is painted with the words "Bazar de Ouistreham". A local resident has indicated that this sign originally said "Bazar de Port-en-Bessin", but the town name was painted over to say "Ouistreham" for filming, then restored to say "Port-en-Bessin" after filming. As of 2013 the paint of the lettering on the building is still visible but has faded on the town name portion so that both the "Port-en-Bessin" and "Ouistreham" lettering can now be seen.
The casting of John Wayne as a paratrooper in his mid-twenties was widely regarded as a mistake.
At D-Day the Germans had only 319 operational aircraft left to face the Allied armada of over 9,000 planes.
The film was made in black and white to allow archive footage to be incorporated, to give the movie a documentary feel, and because it was felt some of the stars would appear younger.
John Wayne's separate billing on the end credits was controversial in view of his non-participation during World War II.
Film debut of Richard Dawson.
Despite being in two scenes, Gert Fröbe (Sergeant Kaffekanne) never actually says a word.
Even if Adolf Hitler had released the Panzers that were being held in reserve it is unlikely they could have made any difference without control of the skies, as the failure of the Ardennes Offensive later demonstrated.
Mel Ferrer was originally signed to play the role of General James M. Gavin but withdrew from the role due to a scheduling conflict.
In 1963 the civil rights organization the NAACP accused Hollywood studios of racial discrimination. Using this film as an example, it cited the fact that despite there being some 1,700 black soldiers who took part in the actual landings, the film featured just a single black actor. He's an extra, and he can be seen on a landing craft (around 1 hr 48 mins) in the film, right in the middle of the frame.
Curd Jürgens (General Günther Blumentritt) and Wolfgang Preiss (Major General Max Pemsel) would both later appear in Die zum Teufel gehen (1969), which likewise depicted the D-Day landings.
Wolfgang Preiss (Major General Max Pemsel) would later play Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in Im Morgengrauen brach die Hölle los (1971) and Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt in Die Brücke von Arnheim (1977).
During the scene, in which Brigadier General Norman Cota (Robert Mitchum) is complaining to Colonel Thomson (Eddie Albert) about the weather, and the number of men being cooped up, Thomson turns to the adjutant and orders him to turn down the radio. The song playing on the radio at that moment is an instrumental of the 1943 Cole Porter tune, "Don't Fence Me In".
In researching his contribution to the script, Romain Gary uncovered one of Cornelius Ryan's mistakes: the casino at Ouistreham had not existed on June 6, 1944. Since the casino set had already been built, however, the scene taking place there was filmed anyway.
Although American Film Institute Catalog of feature films, 1961-1970, identifies 'Dewey Martin (I)' as 'Private Wilder,' and claims his part was cut from the final release print, he does indeed appear with Roddy McDowall on the beach, and his rank is that of a Sergeant (insignia on his helmet) and is also so addressed McDowall.
At one point the camera zooms in on Crecy on the map. Crecy was where the English recorded one of their greatest victories ever, against the French.
General James M. Gavin, played by Robert Ryan, was actually born James Ryan, but put up for adoption at age two, and adopted by Martin and Mary Gavin at age seven.
Darryl F. Zanuck was continually at Andrew Marton's shoulder when he was directing the American sequences.
The two German Messerschmitt 109 fighters attacking the beach were actually four-seat Messerschmitt 108 liaison planes. In real life, Priller and Wodarcyk flew Focke Wulf 190s. Both survived.
Some critics felt having every part played by a star reduced the film's emotional impact.
The 'Crickets' demonstrated by John Wayne in the film and those used during the actual invasion. Where made by J Hudson & Co, a whistle manufacturer of Birmingham, England. The Company are still in existence, famous for their "The ACME" whistles, they still produce an exact replica of the crickets using the original tooling.
Fox executives were nervous when Darryl F. Zanuck decided to film this in black and white. When he was asked how audiences would distinguish it from newsreel footage, Zanuck replied, "Don't worry, I'll put a star in every shot!".
Although the screenplay is credited to Cornelius Ryan, many other writers worked on the film.
After Zwischen Himmel und Hölle (1956), this was the second film dramatization of the Normandy landings in which D-Day veteran Richard Todd (Major John Howard) appeared.
Pundits nicknamed the film "Z-Day".
The highest-grossing black-and-white film until Schindlers Liste (1993).
The film had its Royal Charity premiere on Thursday October 11, 1962 at the Leicester Square Theatre, London, in presence of Princess Margaret for the aid of the Army Benevolent Fund.
Features six Academy Award winners Red Buttons, Sean Connery, Henry Fonda, Edmond O'Brien, Rod Steiger and John Wayne, and 11 other Academy Award nominees Eddie Albert, Richard Burton, Leo Genn, Alexander Knox, Sal Mineo, Robert Mitchum, Robert Ryan, George Segal, Richard Todd, Stuart Whitman and Frank Finlay in the acting categories.
In the film, three Free French Special Air Service paratroopers jump into France before British and American airborne landings. This is accurate. Thirty-six Free French SAS (4 sticks) jumped into Brittany (Plumelec and Duault) on June 5th at 23:30, (operation Dingson). The first Allied soldiers killed in action were Lieutenant Den Brotheridge of the 2nd Ox & Bucks Light Infantry as he crossed Pegasus Bridge at 00:22 on June 6th, and Corporal Emile Bouétard of the 4th Free French SAS battalion, at the same time in Plumelec, Brittany.
The casino featured in the Ouistreham sequence was in fact a hotel in the town of Port-en-Bessin a town on the Normandy coast which marked the dividing line between Gold and Omaha beaches. At the time of filming the hotel was due for demolition and was destroyed as part of the production. The site is now a car park and is marked by an information board.
In several of the beach invasion scenes troops can be seen wearing 1960's era military issued eyeglass frames (birth control glasses or BCGs) with thick plastic frames. During WW2 troops were issued wire rimmed glasses. BCGs were not issued until after the war.
John Wayne demanded that his name should appear separately on the credits.
Brigitte Bardot and Marina Vlady turned down the role of Janine Boitard.
Leslie Phillips only has one line in this movie.
This was one of several high-profile projects which John Wayne took in the wake of the extremely expensive Alamo (1960). He had used his own funds to help finance the project, and he was in desperate need of a quick payday.
Included among the American Film Institute's 1998 list of the 400 movies nominated for the Top 100 Greatest American Movies.
Jack Hedley joked that the scale of this production was so large , and the resources at Darryl F. Zanuck's disposal so vast, that Zanuck was probably the third or fourth most important power in the world at that time.
The Rupert paradummies used in the film were far more elaborate and lifelike than those actually used in the decoy parachute drop (Operation Titanic), which were simply canvas or burlap sacks filled with sand. In the real operation, six Special Air Service soldiers jumped with the dummies and played recordings of loud battle noises to distract the Germans.
The United States Sixth Fleet extensively supported the filming and made available many amphibious landing ships and craft for scenes filmed in Corsica, though many of the ships were of (then) modern vintage. The Springfield and Little Rock, both World War II light cruisers (though extensively reconfigured into guided missile cruisers) were used in the shore bombardment scenes, though it was easy to tell they did not resemble their wartime configuration.
John Wayne and Henry Fonda also appeared in another star-studded epic the same year - Das war der wilde Westen (1962).
William Holden was offered the role of Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Vandervoort, but turned it down, as he was exhausted after finishing China-Story (1962), Verrat auf Befehl (1962) and Patricia und der Löwe (1962).
In the Spanish version, Fernando Rey and Jesús Puente dubbed Henry Fonda and Peter Lawford.
Average Shot Length = ~8 seconds. Median Shot Length = ~6.5 seconds
The film takes place from June 5 to June 6, 1944.
According to Ken Annakin, Darryl F. Zanuck took a dislike to Sean Connery. He said, "That Limey mumbles his lines and looks like a slob!"
Elmo Williams was credited as associate producer and coordinator of battle episodes. He later produced another historical World War II film, Tora! Tora! Tora! (1970), for Darryl F. Zanuck. That film also used a docudrama style, although it was in color. It depicted the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Final film of Paul Hartmann.
Both Wolfgang Preiss (Major General Max Pemsel) and Bernhard Wicki, the director of the German episodes, played Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg in West German films about the failed July 20, 1944 plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler which were released in 1955 - Preiss in Der 20. Juli (1955) and Wicki in Es geschah am 20. Juli (1955).
Film debut of Siân Phillips.
Robert E. Evans turned down a role as one of the American soldiers.
Russell Waters is credited by various sources as being in the film, but he is nowhere to be seen.
The most important construction job for the picture was done at the little fishing village of Port-en-Bessin where General Zanuck filmed the French attack against the fortified Casino that once stood at Ouistreham. The three-story building was reconstructed in detail for this great battle scene in the film, much of it photographed from helicopters.
Different types of guns and thousands of rounds of blank ammunition were hand-manufactured for the making of the film.
Countless U.S. Ranger dummies were built by the props crew for the cliff and beach action sequences. Some wired by the Sp/Fx guys with explosive charges.
Sam Gordon was responsible for the 'Rupert' doll, designed by Charles-Henri Assola. But Rupert was only one of thousands of props that prop-master Sam Gordon had to either create or find for 'The Longest Day'.
When Eisenhower and his staff deliberate on whether or not to proceed due to the weather, a ticking stop watch can be heard starting up as soon as Group Captain Stagg finishes his presentation on the weather. The sound does not change in intensity as it cuts between characters and conveys the urgency of the scene since they have 30 minutes to make a decision.